In the Power Standards of EN15194, the maximum rated power of an e-bike is 250 w. Operating power will normally be less as assistance is cut off above a speed of 25 km/h or when the rider stops pedaling.
Power at the driving wheel (or wheels) for the whole e-bike will be less than the motor’s rated output due to transmission losses, wheel-spoke distortion, tyres and so on.
If the e-bike’s maximum output power is 250 w, the motor’s maximum output power should be about 320 w. The motor’s maximum output power is thus related to the e-bike’s design; so transmission losses should be reduced as far as possible, allowing limited battery resources to be used efficiently.
When you have the following conditions: speed of 25 km/h, flat road, rider’s weight approx. 75 kg, wind speed Force 3 or less, the motor power is between 150 w and 250 w – as determined by the rider’s pedaling power and the controller’s setting. When going uphill or with an increased weight or stronger headwind, the motor draws more power.
The main reason is bad matching of motor and controller. A sine-wave current from the controller is better than a square wave, and induces less noise.
The communication protocol is a software standard between the system controller CPU and parts of the CPU, and also the platform of the standard’s implementation.
Current protocol platform: RS232, CAN, Lin-bus, I2C, 485, etc. The particular machine codes depend on the actual circuit design and appropriate communication. Each communication protocol’s effect is the same, transitive content is almost same.
|code||underlying fault||code||underlying fault|
|09||Phase short circuit or open circuit||30||Communication abnormality of controller and display|
|04||Throttle not returning to zero state||10||Controller overheat|
|05||Throttle hallsensor abnormality||11||Abnormality of temperature sensor in controller|
|06||Low voltage protection||12||Current sensor abnormality|
|07||Over voltage protection||21||Speed sensor abnormality|
|08||Hallsensor abnormality or open circuit||22||Communication abnormality in BMS|